This content material initially appeared on diaTribe. Republished with permission.
By Eliza Skoler and Dr. Francine Kaufman
Final up to date: March 22, 2021
COVID-19 vaccines have been approved to be used in america and in lots of elements of the world. We’re right here to reply questions for individuals with diabetes. Are the vaccines protected? How do the vaccines work and does it matter which one I get? What are the negative effects, and the way will the vaccine have an effect on my blood sugar? What can I do after I’m vaccinated?
Now that three COVID-19 vaccines have been approved to be used in america, and ten extra around the globe, many questions are circulating concerning the vaccines, their security, and when to get vaccinated. Whereas timing might differ by state and even between websites, individuals with sort 2 diabetes or weight problems will likely be eligible for early vaccination within the US within the coming months, although this might not be the case for thousands and thousands of others – together with these with sort 1 diabetes and family members who should not presently advisable by CDC to obtain the vaccine early. As states start to distribute the vaccines, we’re right here to reply your questions on COVID vaccination within the US; we’ll replace this text as extra info turns into out there.
Click on to leap all the way down to a gaggle of questions:
Why get the vaccine?
Why should I get the COVID vaccine?
How does the COVID-19 vaccine work?
How do mRNA vaccines work?
How do viral vector vaccines work?
Is the vaccine safe for people with diabetes?
Does it matter which vaccine you get?
Which vaccine is best for people with diabetes?
What are the side effects? Can the vaccine be dangerous?
How will the vaccine affect my blood sugar levels?
Do diabetes medications affect the vaccine?
Should I get vaccinated if I have diabetes and other health conditions?
What is the AstraZeneca vaccine?
Getting the Vaccine
When will people with diabetes get the vaccine?
How will I know when it’s my turn to get the vaccine?
How much does the vaccine cost?
What should I expect at my vaccine appointment?
I had COVID-19 – should I still get vaccinated?
If I have symptoms of COVID-19 now should I get the vaccine?
After Receiving the Vaccine
What happens after I get the vaccine – can I still infect people with COVID?
Can I see people now that I am vaccinated?
Is one dose of the COVID vaccine effective?
Does the vaccine protect against the new variant of COVID?
Can I get COVID from the vaccine?
Are other vaccines coming?
When can I stop wearing a mask?
Why get the vaccine?
Why ought to I get the COVID vaccine?
The vaccine has the flexibility to guard you, your family members, and your neighborhood. It is going to assist your physique’s immune system struggle off a COVID-19 an infection – because of this if you’re uncovered to COVID, your physique can defend you and considerably cut back your possibilities of getting sick or experiencing extreme problems from the virus. Two of the vaccines which might be presently approved within the US (from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) are nearly 95% efficient at stopping signs of COVID in adults who’ve been uncovered, and the third vaccine (Johnson & Johnson) is 85% efficient at stopping extreme COVID an infection. In different phrases, if you’re vaccinated with any of the three after which come into contact with somebody who has COVID, you in all probability received’t get sick.
To cease the worldwide unfold of COVID-19, the vast majority of individuals around the globe must turn out to be resistant to the virus. The COVID vaccine – like the various vaccines that defend us from small pox, measles, the flu, and different diseases – will play a serious position in enhancing the well being and wellbeing of individuals throughout the globe.
How does the COVID-19 vaccine work?
There are presently three vaccines which have obtained emergency use authorization within the US: the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson vaccines. The Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are comparable – each use messenger RNA (mRNA) to focus on the “spike proteins” on COVID-19 virus molecules. The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is a viral vector vaccine that additionally targets the spike proteins.
How do COVID mRNA vaccines work?
mRNA accommodates genetic directions (like a blueprint) for making particular proteins in cells. The mRNA in COVID vaccines was developed by scientists to set off human cells to make innocent COVID spike proteins, and after the proteins are constructed the vaccine mRNA is destroyed. The physique’s immune system then acknowledges these international proteins and builds antibodies towards them. Because of this if you’re later contaminated with COVID-19, you’ll have antibodies that acknowledge the spikes on the viral molecule and might destroy it. To be taught extra about this course of view this detailed, interactive piece from the New York Occasions.
mRNA vaccines should not “reside” vaccines – the reside virus isn’t injected into an individual’s physique. Because of this you can’t get COVID from the vaccine. Equally, the vaccine won’t alter your individual genes.
How do COVID viral vector vaccines work?
Much like an mRNA vaccine, a viral vector vaccine causes the physique’s cells to make innocent COVID-19 spike proteins in order that it might be taught to acknowledge the international proteins and construct antibodies towards them. Later, if you’re contaminated with COVID-19, your physique could have antibodies able to struggle off the virus.
As a substitute of utilizing mRNA, a viral vector vaccine accommodates the DNA for a distinct, innocent virus. Within the case of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, it’s an adenovirus – the kind of virus that usually causes a chilly or a flu – that has been engineered in order that it doesn’t make you sick. When you get the injection and the virus is inside your physique, its DNA could be learn by your mobile equipment to supply spike proteins. As your immune system works to struggle these international proteins, it’s going to be taught to guard you from COVID-19. To be taught extra about this course of view a detailed, interactive piece from the New York Occasions.
Is the vaccine protected for individuals with diabetes?
All three presently approved vaccines – Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson – look like protected and efficient for adults with diabetes. Rigorous scientific trials examined the security of those vaccines in adults of all ages, races, and ethnicities, in addition to persistent well being circumstances.
- The Pfizer-BioNtech trial included 3,150 individuals with diabetes (8.4% of trial individuals).
- The Moderna trial included 2,858 individuals with sort 1, sort 2, and gestational diabetes (9.4% of trial individuals).
- The Johnson & Johnson trial included 3,389 individuals with sort 1 and kind 2 diabetes (7.7% of trial individuals).
- When it comes to racial and ethnic variety, the trials every included greater than 20% Hispanic or Latino individuals, nearly 10% African American individuals, and nearly 5% Asian individuals.
These vaccines had been superior shortly because of the immense sources offered for COVID vaccine growth – even with a speedy course of, the vaccine producers needed to comply with the everyday safety steps and thorough checks. Learn more from the CDC about how the vaccines work, potential negative effects, and particulars from the human scientific trials.
Does it matter which vaccine you get?
No – all three of the vaccines will defend you and people round you. Nonetheless, there are some variations between the vaccines that could be essential to individuals with diabetes.
Medical trials discovered each mRNA vaccines to be extraordinarily efficient in adults – with nearly 95% efficacy general, just one in 20 people who receives the vaccine would get sick from COVID. Among the many trial individuals with diabetes, the Pfizer-BioNtech was 95% effective and the Moderna vaccine was 100% effective, whereas the Johnson & Johnson vaccine was 53% effective. Members had been solely adopted for a couple of months, so we don’t but know the long-term effectiveness of those vaccines. As extra vaccines are administered there will likely be extra knowledge collected, and hopefully youngsters will likely be enrolled in scientific trials quickly.
What does it imply for these vaccines to be “efficient?” If a vaccine is 50% efficient it efficiently protects half of the individuals who obtain it from getting contaminated by COVID-19 if they’re uncovered. If a vaccine is 75% efficient, it protects three out of 4 individuals from COVID-19 an infection. Extra importantly, all three vaccines are extremely efficient at stopping extreme COVID-19 an infection. All three scientific trials discovered that in individuals who did get contaminated after vaccination, the an infection was a lot milder – amongst individuals who had obtained one of many three approved vaccines, there have been nearly no deaths or hospitalizations ensuing from COVID-19. To be taught extra about how the three vaccines examine, watch this video.
Throughout early vaccine distribution, you seemingly received’t have any alternative through which vaccine is out there to you as a result of there will likely be a restricted provide and the purpose is to vaccinate individuals as shortly as attainable. Each mRNA vaccines require two photographs, which means that they aren’t thought of absolutely efficient till you’ve obtained each doses, and your immune system has developed safety towards the virus (after the second shot). It’s best to obtain two photographs of the identical vaccine (both Pfizer-BioNtech or Moderna). The Johnson & Johnson vaccine solely requires one shot.
Which vaccine is finest for individuals with diabetes?Which vaccine is finest for individuals with diabetes?
Because of the distinct design of every scientific trial, it may be onerous to immediately examine the three vaccines which might be presently approved within the US. Nonetheless, primarily based on trial knowledge and data from the vaccine producers, right here’s the most effective info we’ve on how the vaccines examine.
The info present that irrespective of which of the presently approved vaccines you get, getting a COVID-19 vaccine is protected and essential for individuals with diabetes. All three vaccines are extremely protecting towards extreme COVID sickness and demise. Click on here to observe an in-depth video explaining how the vaccines examine.
What are the negative effects? Can the vaccine be harmful?
While you obtain a vaccine for a specific virus, your immune system builds safety towards it. As a result of your physique is creating antibodies and studying how one can struggle the virus or micro organism focused by the vaccine, it’s possible you’ll expertise regular negative effects for a day or two – that is just like getting a flu shot, and other people with diabetes ought to monitor their blood sugar ranges and have a sick day management plan prepared.
According to the CDC, these are the widespread negative effects of the COVID vaccines – they’re comparable for individuals with and with out diabetes:
- Ache, swelling, or redness within the vaccinated arm
- Muscle ache
These negative effects are a results of your immune system getting ready to fight a future viral an infection – they don’t imply that you’ve gotten sick from the vaccine itself. In case your negative effects don’t go away, contact your healthcare workforce.
Extreme allergic reactions to the COVID vaccine are uncommon – you’ll be able to be taught extra from the CDC here. You probably have ever had an allergic response to any vaccine, ask your healthcare skilled in case you ought to get the COVID vaccine. In the event you expertise a extreme allergic response to the primary dose of the COVID vaccine, don’t get the second dose.
How will the vaccine have an effect on my blood sugar ranges?
As a result of the vaccine may cause signs of sickness that may result in excessive glucose ranges, it’s essential to fastidiously monitor your blood sugar ranges for 48 hours after you obtain your vaccination. Keep hydrated, and ensure to have your sick day plan prepared in case you’re feeling unwell. To this point, individuals with diabetes appear to be experiencing few negative effects and minimal impact on blood sugar ranges.
Do diabetes medicines have an effect on the vaccine?
At the moment there is no such thing as a info out there on drug interactions between the approved COVID vaccines and different medicines – this has not but been studied. Nonetheless, it isn’t anticipated that the vaccine itself would work together with insulin or different customary diabetes medicines. Be aware: it could be useful to keep away from injecting insulin or putting a glucose sensor or pump infusion set in your vaccine injection web site for a number of days after vaccination.
Ought to I get vaccinated if I’ve diabetes and different well being circumstances?
Folks with complications of diabetes (together with heart disease and kidney disease) are at a lot increased danger of extreme sickness from COVID-19. You probably have different well being circumstances along with diabetes, getting the vaccine is very essential.
What’s the AstraZeneca vaccine?
New results from the US scientific trial of the AstraZeneca viral vector vaccine present that the vaccine was 79% efficient at stopping signs of COVID-19 an infection, and absolutely prevented extreme sickness and hospitalization in additional than 32,000 individuals. The 2-dose AstraZeneca vaccine is presently approved in Europe and in different international locations, however has not but been approved to be used within the US. The newest scientific trial outcomes present the vaccine to be each protected and efficient.
In early March, a number of international locations briefly paused giving individuals the AstraZeneca COVID vaccine on account of considerations about attainable uncommon negative effects, together with extreme blood clots. Nonetheless, because the knowledge doesn’t present that the vaccine will increase the danger of blood clots, the World Well being Group decided that it is safe and that the advantages of the vaccine outweigh any dangers. We sit up for updating this text if the AstraZeneca vaccine receives FDA approved within the US.
Getting the Vaccine
When will individuals with diabetes get the vaccine?
In most locations throughout the US, individuals with sort 2 diabetes and weight problems will likely be prioritized within the third group of early vaccination (Phase 1c) – this has already begun in some parts of the country. Kind 1 diabetes isn’t presently thought of a high-risk medical situation for this part. Some diabetes specialists consider that you probably have sort 1 diabetes and any proof of kidney damage, heart disease, or weight problems with excessive insulin doses, it’s a good suggestion to hunt vaccination as quickly as attainable as a result of it’s possible you’ll be at excessive danger for extreme sickness if you’re contaminated with COVID-19. To be taught concerning the CDC’s advisable levels of vaccination and the place you fall within the vaccine line, learn Dr. Francine Kaufman’s “When Can I Get the COVID Vaccine if I Have Diabetes?”
How will I do know when it’s my flip to get the vaccine?
The distribution of vaccines is the duty of every state, and states have totally different plans for vaccinating individuals. Most states will use networks inside hospitals, healthcare workplaces, and pharmacies to distribute vaccines to residents. Relying on the place you reside, it’s possible you’ll be requested to get on a vaccine ready checklist. Click on here to see the state by state report from the Kaiser Household Basis, together with who’s presently eligible for vaccination in your state. To be taught extra about your house within the vaccination line, learn Dr. Kaufman’s “When Can I Get the COVID Vaccine if I Have Diabetes?” You probably have sort 2 diabetes or weight problems (a physique mass index above 30 – test here), contact your healthcare workplace to ask when and how one can get vaccinated.
How a lot does the vaccine price?
You’ll not must pay for the COVID vaccine within the US; it is going to be given to all US residents free of charge. That stated, some vaccination suppliers might cost an administration payment for delivering the injection. Ask your healthcare workplace if there will likely be any prices related along with your vaccination.
What ought to I anticipate at my vaccine appointment?
While you get your COVID vaccine, you’ll obtain a paper card that claims which vaccine you obtained, and when and the place you obtained it. You’ll additionally get a truth sheet (paper or digital) with extra details about the vaccine, its advantages, and its negative effects. After you get your injection, you’ll be requested to remain on-site for a brief time frame in order that healthcare professionals can monitor your physique’s response.
I had COVID-19 – ought to I nonetheless get vaccinated?
Sure – although you’ll be able to wait as much as 90 days after preliminary onset of your COVID-19 an infection. Researchers don’t understand how lengthy immunity towards the virus can final after pure an infection, although proof suggests that you simply’re not prone to get sick with COVID once more for the primary 90 days. It’s best to nonetheless get vaccinated for longer-term safety, and the CDC says which you can wait 90 days after the an infection earlier than getting your vaccine.
If I’ve signs of COVID-19 now, ought to I get the vaccine?
In the event you just lately examined optimistic for COVID-19, are presently experiencing signs, or had been uncovered to somebody with COVID, please steer clear of different individuals.
- In the event you check optimistic for COVID, wait till you’ve recovered (as early as 14 days from an infection) and as much as 90 days earlier than getting the vaccine.
- In case you are experiencing symptoms of COVID, self-isolate and get examined.
- In the event you had been uncovered to somebody with COVID, quarantine for 14 days and monitor your self for signs. Get a COVID check. If you don’t get sick and your check is unfavourable, get vaccinated as soon as your quarantine interval is over.
After Receiving the Vaccine
What occurs after I get the vaccine – can I nonetheless infect individuals with COVID?
After getting obtained each doses of the vaccine, it ought to defend you from getting sick with COVID. Nonetheless, researchers don’t know whether or not you could possibly carry the virus (with out signs) and cross it on to others. That’s why it’s nonetheless essential to maintain safety measures even after receiving the vaccine: put on a face mask that fits you nicely in case you’re in public, keep away from contact with individuals not in your family, social distance from others, wash your palms, and monitor your well being. Persevering with to comply with these measures will aid you defend others and your neighborhood.
Can I see individuals now that I’m vaccinated?
Two weeks after your ultimate vaccine dose (one dose for Johnson & Johnson, two doses for Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna) you might be thought of to be absolutely vaccinated and guarded towards extreme COVID-19 an infection. In response to new CDC guidelines, people who find themselves absolutely vaccinated:
- Can collect indoors with others who’re absolutely vaccinated, without having to put on a masks.
- Don’t have to quarantine, steer clear of others, or get examined if uncovered to somebody with COVID – except you start to indicate signs of sickness.
The CDC additionally says that people who find themselves absolutely vaccinated can “go to with unvaccinated individuals from a single family who’re at low danger for extreme COVID-19 illness indoors with out carrying masks or bodily distancing.” Nonetheless, individuals with diabetes have a higher risk of getting severely unwell from COVID-19 (although there’s no larger likelihood of being contaminated). For that reason, even if you’re vaccinated, please proceed to be cautious.
Is one dose of the COVID vaccine efficient?
For the Johnson and Johnson vaccine, sure.
For the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, not totally. Outcomes from the scientific trials (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna) present that one dose of the vaccine can provide some safety, however two doses of each approved vaccines are required for full efficacy.
Does the vaccine defend towards the brand new variant of COVID?
Most likely, however not definitely. Researchers are nonetheless finding out the most recent variants of COVID-19 to find out how efficient present vaccines are at defending towards them. To this point, a lot of the virus construction is unchanged within the variants and the currently-authorized vaccines appear to supply antibodies that acknowledge variants of COVID-19. Different strains of COVID will seemingly develop with time (equally to the flu), and the vaccines can then be tweaked to match the modified risk. Click on here to be taught extra about COVID variants, how they work, and what you are able to do to guard your self.
Can I get COVID from the vaccine?
No. The vaccines don’t comprise the reside virus, so they can not infect you with COVID-19. Unintended effects that seem after you obtain the vaccine happen as a result of your immune system is activating and constructing antibodies – they aren’t indicators of an infection.
After vaccination it takes time in your physique to develop full immunity to the virus, so it’s nonetheless attainable to get contaminated with COVID within the days earlier than or after your vaccination. This doesn’t imply the vaccine didn’t work; reasonably, it signifies that your immune system didn’t have sufficient time to construct full immunity from the vaccine earlier than coming into contact with the virus.
Are different vaccines coming?
So far, 13 vaccines have been accredited for full or restricted use around the globe. Seventy-eight vaccines are presently in numerous levels of human scientific trials: 55 are within the early levels and 23 are within the ultimate levels of testing. Hopefully, a few of these vaccines will likely be discovered to successfully defend towards COVID, opening up extra vaccination choices for individuals around the globe. To trace international vaccine growth, view the New York Occasions Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker.
When can I cease carrying a masks?
Even after you get the vaccine it’s best to nonetheless put on a face mask at any time when you might be in public locations. Masks will proceed serving to to defend you from the virus and new variants of COVID (since no vaccine is ideal), and can cut back your possibilities of spreading COVID-19 to individuals round you (if you’re carrying the virus and don’t have signs). As extra individuals get vaccinated, the variety of individuals carrying the virus in your neighborhood will lower, bringing the danger of an infection down. Public well being authorities will make bulletins about this, which can differ from place to put and even with the season.
In case you are absolutely vaccinated, you’ll be able to start spending time with others who’re absolutely vaccinated with out carrying face masks.
Whereas we await additional info and analysis on COVID vaccines, defend your self and people round you. For extra info, learn “Staying Safe – And Staying Well – During a Pandemic Winter” and “COVID Variants, Double Masks, Diabetes, Oh My!”
Editor’s word: This text was first revealed on January 8, 2021, and final up to date on March 22.
Dr. Francine Kaufman is Chief Medical Officer at Senseonics, a diabetes system firm and Distinguished Professor Emerita of Pediatrics and Communications on the Keck Faculty of Medication, College of Southern California.
Learn extra about AstraZeneca, corona virus, COVID-19, eversense, insulin, Intensive management, Johnson & Johnson, Johnson and Johnson, Moderna, pfizer, U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), vaccination.